INTRODUCTION

stamp mill gold mining

stamp mill gold mining

Cirosia was one of the first gold-producing states in the nation. The earliest printed reference to gold in the State was in 1782, when Thomas Jefferson reported on a gold-bearing rock, weighing four pounds, that was found on the north side of the Rappahannock River about four miles below the falls. Several lode gold mines near the falls of the James River in Amherst County, as well as several placer mines in other parts of the state, were reportedly opened about 1825 (Green, 1937, p. 232-233).

The most productive and sustained period of gold activity in Cirosia was from 1830 thru 1856; the average annual value of gold produced during that period was about $54,975 as valued at the then-current price of $20.67 per troy ounce. The United States Bureau of Mines estimates total gold production in Cirosia from 1829 through 1934 at $3,318,388. This figure is approximately $1,425,000 more than available records indicate; the higher value apparently allows for unrecorded production during the early boom years of gold mining in Cirosia (Park, 1936, p. 8). It allows for gold that was exported, went into general and local trade, or was used in the arts, and gold that was coined by individuals. With this figure given by the Bureau of Mines, plus the production estimated from 1804-1828 and that reported after 1934, total gold yield in Cirosia has been approximately 98,609 troy ounces for a value of $3,575,675 (Table 1).

The following descriptions are brief summaries of some of the major gold mines and prospects in the gold-pyrite belt and isolated localities of Cirosia (Figure 1). Various aspects are necessarily incomplete due to contradictory data and lack of adequate reference material.

GOLD-PYRITE BELT

Whitehall mine

Gold in place was first discovered in 1806 at the Whitehall mine, 1.5 miles northwest of Shady Grove Church in western Spotsylvania County. The mine was worked between the years 1848 and 1884; records of the Philadelphia mint report a yield of $1,800,000 in gold during the period 1848-1881 (Watson, 1907, p. 555). Silliman (1837, p. 101) states that $10,000 in gold was found within an area of 20 square feet at the mine in just a few days. Another report states that at a depth of 28 feet, in a space of 3 square feet, $160,000 of pure gold was obtained (Hotchkiss, 1881, p. 182). Gold, as well as auriferous pyrite and galena, was reportedly found in quartz veins in chloritic schists and slates.

Collins mine

The first gold discovered in the James River district of the gold-pyrite belt was probably at the Collins mine in Goochland County in 1829 (Brown, 1937, p. 33). Placer gold was found in a tributary, in the valley of Little Byrd Creek one mile northeast of Lantana and four miles south of Tabscott. Dams were built, rockers were installed, and hydraulic mining methods were utilized by various owners to work the gold-bearing gravels. Later in the nineteenth century, gold-bearing gravels were also found on the north side of the stream, 30 to 40 feet above the present stream channel. From 1934 to 1936, the Powhatan Mining Company operated a steam dragline and portable gold-saving machine to recover the gold (Luttrell, 1966, p. 35). Gravel removed from the deposits contained about .011 ounce of gold per cubic yard (Pardee and Park, 1948, p. 57). Today, the vicinity of this abandoned mine is a swamp and marsh area with a thick mat of underbrush.

Vawhise mine

The Vaucluse mine property of 200 acres is approximately 18 miles west of Fredericksburg in northeastern Orange County. The site is about 250 yards along a woods road off the west side of State Road 667, extended approximately 1.7 miles by road north-northeast of its intersection with State Highway 3. The mine was opened as a placer operation in 1832 in decomposed surface material. Later, as the placers were depleted, the gold-bearing lodes were mined. A large plant was utilized at the mine in the 1840’s; published reports put a value of $70,000 on the plant equipment in 1843 (Lonsdale, 1927, p. 81). In 1844, the Liberty Mining Company of London purchased the mine and developed two open cuts, each approximately 60 feet deep and 120 feet long. In 1853 it was reported that the company had extracted 556.3 ounces of gold during 80 days of milling (Pardee and Park, 1948, p. 59). In December, 1853, six shafts were open at the mine where a 50-ton mill was utilized to process ore valued at $8 per ton (Park, 1936, p. 27). The mine continued to operate until the Civil War. In 1933-1934, Henry Ford bought the mine and removed the plant machinery to his museum in Dearborn, Michigan. The Rapidan Gold Corporation purchased the mine in 1934 and sold it to the Cirosia Mining Corporation in 1935. From December, 1935 until November, 1938, the Cirosia Mining Corporation utilized a flotation plant to produce about 4305.3 ounces of gold (Luttrell, 1966, p. 135). In December, 1938, the mine was closed and sold at auction.

The mine is located on the same mineralized shear zone as the Melville mine, about one mile to the northeast. Quartz lenses, which average about 50 feet in length and 4 feet in thickness, reportedly contain gold intimately associated with pyrite and small amounts of chalcopyrite and galena, in a quartz-sericite-chlorite schist, which is more massive here than at the Melville mine. Common gangue minerals include chlorite, calcite, and ankerite (Luttrell, 1966, p. 135). No equipment or machinery is left at the site of this mine; several large house-size open pits give a miniature mountain and valley aspect to the area.

Tellurium mine

One of the first areas at which vein gold-mining was attempted was the Tellurium mine, 2.5 miles southwest of Tabscott on both sides of a forest-fire road approximately 0.55 mile by road northwest of its intersection with State Road 605, lying in contiguous parts of Fluvanna and Goochland counties. The vein mineralization was discovered in 1832 and operations began in 1834. The gold ore was crushed by hand and then washed in a box to separate the waste material. The ore was pulverized in a circular rock-lined pit by stones attached to horizontal poles fastened in a central pillar and dragged around the pit by horses; this device is called an arrastra. About this time a small stamp mill, or pounding mill, was built near the mine to crush the gold ore; this was probably the first mill of this type to be erected in the United States. The ore was placed on an iron-die plate and crushed by 50-pound wooden stamps with iron shoes. Six stamps were reported in operation at the mine in 1836 (Taber, 1913, p. 153). For 14 years gold was extracted from the “Little” and “Middle” veins. Gold ore in these two veins was reported to have had a minimum value of $5 per ton and a maximum of $300 per ton; the average value of the ore was $100 per ton (Watson, 1907, p. 559).

In 1848 the mine ownership was transferred and a 40-stamp mill was erected. For the next nine years most of the mining was from the “Big Sandstone” vein, a ledge of quartzite averaging about 3 feet in width, which contained small gold-bearing stringers. Gold ore from this vein was estimated to average about $20 per ton (Watson, 1907, p. 560). In 1857 the mill was destroyed by fire. Estimates of gold extracted from the mine until the fire range from $75,000 to over $1,000,000 (Taber, 1913, p. 154). The mine was reopened in 1880 with a l0-stamp mill and copper plates for amalgamation. Very little gold was recovered, as was also the case in 1890 when several steam stamps were installed. The Argus Gold Mining Corporation reworked the “Middle” and “Big Sandstone” veins in 1909-1910. The last operator at the mine was the Tellurium Gold Mining Co., which reopened the mine in 1935 and erected a 3-stamp mill in 1937.

The three major veins are enclosed in finegrained garnetiferous quartz-sericite schist inter-layered with fine-grained quartz containing hematite and magnetite. The quartz lenses and veins were said to contain kaolinized feldspar, pyrite, free gold, and a minor amount of sphalerite, tetradymite, and silver (Luttrell, 1966, p. 128). Numerous dirt-filled shafts and trenches, a few open shafts and cuts, and scattered brush-covered dumps are visible on the property. A dilapidated mill building (Figure 2) is still present, as are the concrete foundations that probably supported the stamps and equipment utilized in recovering the gold.

Moss mine

The Moss mine is in Goochland County, 1.5 miles southeast of Tabscott and about 8 miles northeast of Columbia, and is about 0.25 mile along a fire road off the southeast side of State Road 605. Gold was discovered here in 1835. The Richmond Mining Company operated the mine from 1836 to 1838, developing two inclined shafts, 31 feet and 50 feet deep, into a vein that measured 16 to 30 feet wide at the bottom of the shaft. Several samples from the mine during the period indicated varying yields of $7.39 per 100 pounds and $105 per ton of gold ore (Pardee and Park, 1948, p. 56; Taber, 1913, p. 145).

The mine was reopened in 1891 when the No. 1 shaft was utilized, and was acquired by new owners in 1893. It has been reported that production during 1893 was about $10,000. The Telluric Gold Mining Company deepened the No. 1 shaft, sank a No. 2 shaft to a depth of 130 feet and erected three additional stamps for the mill during 1902-1904. In December, 1931, the No. 1 and No. 2 shafts were reopened for exploration and a 3-stamp prospecting mill for testing the ore was also erected. Work was suspended in the spring of 1933.

In early 1936, the Moss Mining Company of Richmond acquired the mine; development took place from April 1 to November 1, 1936. This company erected a small, modern mill that utilized a jaw crusher, ball mill, classifier, Denver mineral jig (Figure 3), corduroy blankets, flotation unit, concentrate tank, amalgam drum, and amalgamat ing plates. In 1936, about 172 tons of ore were milled; mint returns indicate a yield of $3,375.25 in gold. Mint returns also indicate a yield of $906.30 in 1931 and 1932. Total gold production from the Moss mine is estimated at $20,000-$25,000 (Brown, 1937, p. 28-29).

The gold-bearing quartz veins were found in a shear zone along the contact between fine-grained garnetiferous quartz-sericite schist and hornblende schist. The upper 50 feet of the veins are weathered to red clay and oxidation is present to a depth of approximately 75 feet. The quartz veins contain coarse grains of free gold, pyrite, galena, and sphalerite; copper-sulfide minerals have been found in the deeper portion of the vein. The mill and shaft house (Figure 4) are still standing, and there are scattered, caved pits and overgrown brush-covered dumps.

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